Actually, my problem is a systematic analysis of an acid or alkali. There are so many acids and bases (organic and inorganic) in this world. I found some logical scheme for cation and anion analyses (including Ag, Hg, Pb, Fe, Al, Ni, Mg, Zn, Ba, K, Na, Sr, Ca; OH, PO4, CO3, HCO3, SO4, Cl, I), but can I simply apply to acid and bases identification. Is the logical cation analysis which involves different solubility of salts in acid, bases, applicable to an acid or alkali medium? I have problem in identifying the hydrogen ion moiety in an acid (e.g, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, etc), in identifying acetic acid, carbonic acid, dihydrogen-phosphate ion, phosphoric acid. Likewise, I don't know how to approach the identification of an oxide, acetate ion, monohydrogen-phosphate ion. Adding to the complexity is other organic acids such as carboxylic acids and phenols. I don't know how many acids and bases there are in this world. Moreover, I simply don't have an systematic way to identify an unknown powder that is acidic or alkaline.
Could any experts please help me out? Many thanks!