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Chemistry Forums for Students => Organic Chemistry Forum => Organic Chemistry Forum for Graduate Students and Professionals => Topic started by: acarter5251 on August 31, 2015, 03:13:49 PM

Title: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: acarter5251 on August 31, 2015, 03:13:49 PM
I came across a reaction in the literature where a hydroxyl group on amphotericin B was protected using catalytic camphorsulfonic acid and methanol to yield the methyl ether.  I was just wondering what the mechanism of this involves?  I have looked everywhere and cannot seem to find anything.

Thanks in advance!

Reference to paper:
Nontoxic antimicrobials that evade drug resistance
Nature Chemical Biology 11, 481–487 (2015)
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: Dan on August 31, 2015, 03:43:53 PM
You are more likely to get comments if you draw out the reaction for the benefit of those who do not have access to the paper.
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: acarter5251 on August 31, 2015, 05:21:45 PM
I'm sorry about that. Here is what is happening:

(https://www.chemicalforums.com/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi61.tinypic.com%2Fe5p6bc.jpg&hash=d831c183300862c37e50de6f3baef0cd)
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: Babcock_Hall on August 31, 2015, 05:53:57 PM
Please give us your thoughts first, then people will comment.  This is a forum policy.
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: acarter5251 on August 31, 2015, 06:23:35 PM
My thoughts are that the camphorsulfonic acid is first protonating the hydroxyl that is being protected.  Then it appears that the methanol somehow comes in to replace that hydroxyl. However, what is hanging me up is how stereochemistry is being preserved here (is it the fact that the camphorsulfonic acid is somehow forcing the methanol to come from the same side?).  Also, I'm not entirely sure why this only occurs at this hydroxyl, when there are plenty of others on the molecule (more stable due to it being tertiary?).
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: phth on August 31, 2015, 08:58:07 PM
Waht do you call that specific functional group that you are modifying? (hint: there are 2 in the molecule, it maybe 1 but I cannot see that well without a newman projection).  Have you learned about solvent cage?  What is protonating the oxygen camphor-SO3H or MeOH2+/THF-H+?
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: acarter5251 on August 31, 2015, 09:39:48 PM
I'm not sure if this is what you meant by functional group, but it is a hemiketal.  As far as what is protonating that oxygen, I would think that it is the CSA, but I'm not sure on that either.  I have learned a little about solvent cage, but not much.
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: phth on August 31, 2015, 10:01:02 PM
Yes.  Hemiketals will have a different rate of hydrolysis than ROH.  What's the pKa of camphorSO3H and the pKaH+ of methanol and/or THF?  You can look up the answer.
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: acarter5251 on August 31, 2015, 10:28:53 PM
So the fact that it is a hemiketal is what leads to the selectivity of the protection step? 

pKa of MeOH2+ is about -2 vs. a pKa of about 1 for CSA, so I guess it would be more reasonable that the solvent is protonating the oxygen of the substrate? I just wasn't sure with it being a small amount of CSA in the reaction mixture.
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: phth on August 31, 2015, 10:50:27 PM
OKay good. I didn't recognize that it is in catalytic quantities.  Therefore, I believe it has to do with the energy of the ring system i.e. that the isomer shown is more stable than the other due to the engergetics of the large ring system.
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: acarter5251 on August 31, 2015, 10:56:04 PM
Yeah sorry about that, the CSA is in catalytic amounts.  So what you are saying is that the conservation of the stereochemistry at the hemiketal/ketal is due to the energetics of the macrocycle?
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: phth on August 31, 2015, 10:57:35 PM
Yes, it is equilibrating to the formation that is more stable, and this is related to the equilibrium constant of this substitution reaction.   
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: acarter5251 on August 31, 2015, 11:02:28 PM
Ok thanks!  Could it have to do with interactions in the molecule like the one shown in this figure (part a)?

(https://www.chemicalforums.com/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nature.com%2Fnchembio%2Fjournal%2Fv11%2Fn7%2Fimages%2Fnchembio.1821-F1.jpg&hash=01edbd179ae696c2fab07f1820f89594)

More specifically between the mycosamine and the (hemi)ketal?
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: phth on August 31, 2015, 11:07:32 PM
Water is not the solvent but similar in the reaction; the conformation shown will contribute to the energetics.  You could do some calculations using software to figure out how much,  im guessing it is not larger than the ring strain, how much I'm not sure of.
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: acarter5251 on August 31, 2015, 11:12:57 PM
Thank you so much for your help.

I have one more question.  They state that in performing their HPLC purification in 59:41 water+ 0.3% formic acid/MeCN, the methyl ketal converts back to the hemiketal. Is this essentially the same type of reaction as going from the hemiketal to the methyl ketal, but with water displacing the methoxy?
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: phth on September 01, 2015, 12:42:14 AM
yeah you're right excess water equivalents; HPLC is equilibration conditions.  Needs to be for the separation to work.
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: clarkstill on September 01, 2015, 03:06:12 AM
Is no one going to mention the anomeric effect??
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: Babcock_Hall on September 01, 2015, 09:10:36 AM
The reason for the anomeric effect was controversial the last time I checked in.  However, empirically the methyl pyranosides prefer one diastereomer over the other.  https://books.google.com/books?id=RT_zCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA245&lpg=PA245&dq=methylglucoside+isomers&source=bl&ots=ANQiUdQQyo&sig=wFdqLTL_0JckBzfCRhhLkOC2j-g&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCAQ6AEwAGoVChMIw8iS3_PVxwIVAZMNCh2y0g2-#v=onepage&q=methylglucoside%20isomers&f=false
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: clarkstill on September 01, 2015, 12:10:28 PM
There are several schools of thought. For a recent discussion...

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.201411185/abstract
Title: Re: Camphorsulfonic acid catalyzed protection of alcohol
Post by: phth on September 01, 2015, 06:02:14 PM
This is exactly why I stated I couldnt come up with the answer;  It needs to be modeled to really tell.  The anomeric effect really is proposed in undergrad textbooks as stuff not interacting with the solvent.  I agree with the authors of the paper that Clarkstill posted; it's all about dipoles and hydrogen bonding/solvation effects.  Another example is β-D-glycopyranose/α-D-glucopyranose is 64/36 in H2O and for mthe same book (https://www.chemicalforums.com/proxy.php?request=http%3A%2F%2Fi.imgur.com%2FoazEJGi.png&hash=e5af0516e20101df359e258cde839e85)
Solvents and Solvent Effects in Organic Chemistry, Fourth Edition. Edited by Christian Reichardt and Thomas Welton
Copyright 8 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 978-3-527-32473-6