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##### Undergraduate General Chemistry Forum / Re: Valence shell of transition metals definition is what? (

« Last post by**Hunter2**on

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**Today**at 04:01:19 AMValence electrons of transition elements are all s electrons of the outer shell and the d electrons of the shell below.

How many are used in bondings depends on the element.

Manganese for example can give the two 4 s and 1 until 5 3 d max to get Mn-VII

Copper can have one 4s and one 3 d, stability of the element. Very seldom also Cu-III are reported with 2 3d electrons used.

Iron has two 4s and 1 d to get Fe-III , but Ferrates-VI also known with 4 d electrons.

"Case one: ns is half-filled and (n-1)d is less than full.

Is valence 1+number of electrons in (n-1)d or number of electrons in (n-1)d or 1?"

As I said it can be 1 for the s but also some d electrons. Chromium would be the case.

"Case two: ns is fully filled and (n-1)d is less than full

Is valence 2 or 2+ number of electrons in (n-1)d or number of electrons in (n-1)d?"

The same answer, almost every transition element.

"Case three, ns is fully filled, and (n-1)d is full

is valence 12 or 2 or 10?"

Stability reason only the s electrons, Zinc for example.

"Case four: ns is half-filled, and (n-1)d is full.

is valence 1 or 1+10 or 10?"

Again s + some of the d. Copper already mentioned.

How many are used in bondings depends on the element.

Manganese for example can give the two 4 s and 1 until 5 3 d max to get Mn-VII

Copper can have one 4s and one 3 d, stability of the element. Very seldom also Cu-III are reported with 2 3d electrons used.

Iron has two 4s and 1 d to get Fe-III , but Ferrates-VI also known with 4 d electrons.

"Case one: ns is half-filled and (n-1)d is less than full.

Is valence 1+number of electrons in (n-1)d or number of electrons in (n-1)d or 1?"

As I said it can be 1 for the s but also some d electrons. Chromium would be the case.

"Case two: ns is fully filled and (n-1)d is less than full

Is valence 2 or 2+ number of electrons in (n-1)d or number of electrons in (n-1)d?"

The same answer, almost every transition element.

"Case three, ns is fully filled, and (n-1)d is full

is valence 12 or 2 or 10?"

Stability reason only the s electrons, Zinc for example.

"Case four: ns is half-filled, and (n-1)d is full.

is valence 1 or 1+10 or 10?"

Again s + some of the d. Copper already mentioned.