One useful (and ambitious) objective: reduce the consumption of coal and the emission of CO2
Could sunlight bring the ore to FeO? Or even to Fe via a cycle using Zn/ZnO or similar?
You might try to extract Fe from red mud
, the waste of aluminium productionhttps://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=80950.0
Red mud contains as a example 40% of Fe2
that's not brilliant, but the material is already mined and available at negative price for being a pollutant. I vaguely suppose that a blast furnace can do it with little modifications. Once Fe2
is removed, TiO2 should make more than 10% of the rest
, comparable with the best titanium oreshttps://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1802/t/pp1802t.pdf
At power plants in Europe, fumes are caught efficiently. Could you adapt similar means to catch the fumes emitted by blast furnaces
?Use the slag to absorb CO2
that would otherwise end in the atmosphere? Concentrated CO2
is available for instance at lime factories, often near to blast furnaces, ready to be caught rather than emitted.
Check how to run a blast furnace with polymetallic nodules
, and how to adapt it? They got fashionable again recently (maybe the fashion has already gone)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manganese_nodule
their value seems to result from manganese rather than iron. Ferromanganese is made in blast furnaces from mixed manganese and iron ores, so the nodules, which are already mixes, could be a direct feed.