Rather than hypochlorites (bleach), which are dangerous for non-chemists, I use so-called percarbonate. It leaves no persistent odour, further advantage over hypochlorites. You find it in shops, at least where I live. It's a powder that you can dissolve as a paste or solution. Some include tensides and other soaps, I like them less as they smell. Percarbonate itself doesn't.
The reactions involved are too complex to be detailed nor known. At most, a chemist could tell general things like "reacts with double bonds, destroying the colour". Every single cell of a living organism is too varied to tell a reaction for every chemical in it.
Bleach can act by its chlorine or its oxygen. Both a deadly to bacteria. Percarbonate acts by its oxygen. They are very general germicides, like soap but better. If all surfaces are cleaned with such a germicide, I wouldn't personally worry about biohazard. It's more a matter of leaving no surface untreated. All intentional colours like paints will fade too in the process.
I didn't grasp what should occur in depth. Are there porous surfaces? For fabrics, just put them in water with a germicide.
Strong measures are needed against very infectious diseases like cholera. You might ask people like MSF how they disinfect in this context; my bet is just bleach everywhere. People carrying autopsies also deal with old corpses, they may give good advice too.