You mixed several mixtures - but most likely the only ingredient capable of really reacting with other things was the hypochlorite from the bleach. It could oxidize some more complicated molecules present (like aromatic additives from the fabric softener). Depending on pH of the detergent and the softener (most likely neutral or a bit acidic) some of the bleach could decompose, producing chlorine (as you have correctly guessed). Other than that I wouldn't expect any really interesting chemistry.
It is a bit like throwing together Lego bricks, Duplo bricks and Matchbox models - you get a more complicated mixture, but nothing particularly interesting happens.