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Offline Superchr21

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Subject fit chemistry
« on: February 13, 2020, 02:02:58 PM »
Hallo! I am currently in pre-university education and need to research something. I was wondering if you guys would have any suggestions? I was particularly interested in creating a chemical substance that were we could add a biological side to it.

Thanks in advance!

Offline MNIO

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Re: Subject fit chemistry
« Reply #1 on: February 13, 2020, 03:37:13 PM »
can you be a little be more specific?
  what do you mean by pre-university education?
  what do you mean by "research" vs "creating a chemical substance"
  what do you mean by "chemical substance with a biological side to it"
?

Offline Enthalpy

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Re: Subject fit chemistry
« Reply #2 on: February 13, 2020, 03:55:06 PM »
To create a substance, you must access a lab and have knowledge for synthesis. Is that the case? I know a dozen potential rocket fuels, for a chemist probably very easy to synthesize, but I suppose they're out of the reach of an A-level. Unless you have your own lab and experimented for years.

Or can you measure heats of formation accurately? Densities in liquid nitrogen? Are you equipped for separation and analysis?

Offline Superchr21

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Re: Subject fit chemistry
« Reply #3 on: February 13, 2020, 04:12:01 PM »
can you be a little be more specific?
  what do you mean by pre-university education?
  what do you mean by "research" vs "creating a chemical substance"
  what do you mean by "chemical substance with a biological side to it"
?

Thanks for your reply! Pre-university stream in my country is 2 years before you enter university. It’s called 5 VWO here in the Netherlands.  I want to develop something new, by doing research, and perhaps look at the effects on (human)cells or plants etc. However, we do not have a research lab like big corporations or universities.  I do have about 1 year for the research, so that could weigh in.

I look forward to hearing from you!

Offline Superchr21

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Re: Subject fit chemistry
« Reply #4 on: February 13, 2020, 04:14:56 PM »
To create a substance, you must access a lab and have knowledge for synthesis. Is that the case? I know a dozen potential rocket fuels, for a chemist probably very easy to synthesize, but I suppose they're out of the reach of an A-level. Unless you have your own lab and experimented for years.

Or can you measure heats of formation accurately? Densities in liquid nitrogen? Are you equipped for separation and analysis?

Thanks for your reply! We do have access to a lab, but not a “high end lab”. We also have a tutor to help us with the research.  We haven’t done many syntheses, however like said?, we have a tutor to help us.

I look forward to hearing from you!

Offline MNIO

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Re: Subject fit chemistry
« Reply #5 on: February 13, 2020, 05:17:21 PM »
So essentially your education (and lab access) is equivalent to US high school chemistry at this point... is that correct?  And you wish to do research and develop new "biochemicals" or through a "biochemical" process.  And you're looking for help getting started with some research ideas.

*********
Let me just start here if I may.  I think it's fantastic that you have this desire to do this research and be creative.  I certainly want to encourage you to continue thinking this way.  And I would suggest perhaps you should work towards a degree in biochemical engineering followed by a career in pharmaceuticals (or whatever else might interest you).  In fact, I think you should spend some time googling companies that peak your interest and researchers that made discoveries that interest you.  Look at the backgrounds of the management team or researchers (field of study, research, etc) and their career paths.  Think about how you might direct your education to make you attractive to them.  How you might learn to speak their technical language.

That said, it's not easy to develop new products especially those that have big impacts on the world.  It takes an entrepreneurial vision (you see opportunities / market needs), it takes the "means" to do the research and develop innovative products ($, tools, education, raw materials, etc), it takes technical and business support to bring your products to market.  It takes professional (legal, business,  accounting / funding, etc) resources to publish and protect your intellectual property.  And so on. 

My point in all of this, is NOT to discourage you, but rather to make you aware that you could find yourself setting a goal of developing and understanding a new product and end up in an unmanageable situation without enough resources to be successful.

Meaning, you need to set your goals realistically with clear attainable endpoints.  I'm not sure "creating a new substance with a biological side to it" is clear enough to make you successful.

***********
let me ask you some more questions
  (1) is this a school project?  If so what is the timing and grading "rubric"?
  (2) what interests you?  what have you observed that could be better in the
        world of chemicals around you?
  (3) how much of your life are you will to dedicate to this? 
  (4) is this an individual or group project?

Offline Enthalpy

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Re: Subject fit chemistry
« Reply #6 on: February 14, 2020, 05:51:26 PM »
So: 1 to 2 years after A-level, access to lab and tutor, some synthesis experience, 1 year duration. That looks good.

I have no idea relating with biology, but some relating with thermochemistry, and many for rocket fuels and similar molecules. Most can make a small research paper. Opinions by chemists welcome!

Possibly too short project: take pure n-alkanes, for instance butane to decane. Freeze them with liquid nitrogen, measure accurately the density at 77K. Check if any odd-even effect exists on the solid density at identical temperature. This is debated and could shed light on what determines melting points.

Short too: measure the effect of geminal amines N-C-N on the enthalpy of formation, as compared with homologue amines C-C-N and alkanes C-C-C. Buy adamantane and hexamethyl tetramine "hexamine", burn them in a calorimetric bomb, measure accurately, deduce the effect. Repeat with bought CN(C)CN(C)C, CN(C)CC(C)C and CC(C)CC(C)C. Existing data seems inconsistent, and I've seen nothing about the effect of geminal amines, but didn't check the best sources neither. Interesting small contribution.

Alkanes with wide liquid range would have many uses, but I (and probably the whole Mankind) have no accurate idea to predict melting points nor select a candidate on the paper. Even measured melting points are far too scarce to build a theory. So I suggest to take a very wide pool of alkanes C10 to C20+ in good amount, and alternate several distillations and freezes to keep only the bunch of compounds that stay liquid. Separating and analysing them seems uneasy to me, but then you could provide at once hundreds of interesting alkanes, directly for use after separation or synthesis, or as input data for a theory about melting points and wide liquid ranges. The initial pool of alkanes could be purified or saturated Diesel oil, or you could combine at once 100 variants of reactant A with 100 variants of reactant B.

Electrochemistry: try to add Mo to electroformed Ni or NiCo, observe the properties, mechanical and others. Ni is easily electrodeposited, Mo has nearly the same redox potential as Ni and Co, which supposedly helps.

Check how nicely UV Leds can replace Hg lamps in photochemical reactions. I fear it isn't very new any more.

Find caparrapi oil, or if not, buy farnesol. Transform them into farnesane, check how easy the dehydrations and saturations are. Rocket fuel for Moon and Mars, more uses on Earth.

Synthesize simple low-freezing amines as rocket fuels for Moon and Mars. Check how easy it is, measure simple properties. Example:
CCN(C)CCCN(C)CCCN(C)CC

Synthesize strained amines as rocket fuels that outperform so-called "kerosene". Check how easy it is, measure simple properties. Example:
C1CCN1C2(CC2)N3CCC3 from bought azetidine and made dihalocyclopropane

The interesting properties for rocket fuels are: stability, flash point, melting point, viscosity, heat of formation, odour and few more.

Some quite strained alkanes would be efficient too, but their are harder to synthesize, to my untrained eyes. Many alkenes would outperform them but demand a redesign of rocket engines. New hydrazines seem too dangerous for this project.

Tell me what projects look good for you, or if these ones are too easy or not enough commercial. I've already detailed them much more on Chemicalforums and would give the links.

Offline Superchr21

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Re: Subject fit chemistry
« Reply #7 on: February 17, 2020, 06:33:43 AM »
So essentially your education (and lab access) is equivalent to US high school chemistry at this point... is that correct?  And you wish to do research and develop new "biochemicals" or through a "biochemical" process.  And you're looking for help getting started with some research ideas.

*********
Let me just start here if I may.  I think it's fantastic that you have this desire to do this research and be creative.  I certainly want to encourage you to continue thinking this way.  And I would suggest perhaps you should work towards a degree in biochemical engineering followed by a career in pharmaceuticals (or whatever else might interest you).  In fact, I think you should spend some time googling companies that peak your interest and researchers that made discoveries that interest you.  Look at the backgrounds of the management team or researchers (field of study, research, etc) and their career paths.  Think about how you might direct your education to make you attractive to them.  How you might learn to speak their technical language.

That said, it's not easy to develop new products especially those that have big impacts on the world.  It takes an entrepreneurial vision (you see opportunities / market needs), it takes the "means" to do the research and develop innovative products ($, tools, education, raw materials, etc), it takes technical and business support to bring your products to market.  It takes professional (legal, business,  accounting / funding, etc) resources to publish and protect your intellectual property.  And so on. 

My point in all of this, is NOT to discourage you, but rather to make you aware that you could find yourself setting a goal of developing and understanding a new product and end up in an unmanageable situation without enough resources to be successful.

Meaning, you need to set your goals realistically with clear attainable endpoints.  I'm not sure "creating a new substance with a biological side to it" is clear enough to make you successful.

***********
let me ask you some more questions
  (1) is this a school project?  If so what is the timing and grading "rubric"?
  (2) what interests you?  what have you observed that could be better in the
        world of chemicals around you?
  (3) how much of your life are you will to dedicate to this? 
  (4) is this an individual or group project?

My sincerest apologies for the late response.

4. Yes, it is a group project. My apologies. I tend to use I a lot.  :P
1. Yes. However, the rubric is not made yet. This is because project starts in a few months, however we do want a subject in time.
2. I unfortunately do not have something I have in mind that bothers me with respect to the current chemical knowledge. This perhaps could be a cause of my lack of information.
3. As much as I love chemistry, I do have exams next year. When the project is due. So dedicating too much time could perhaps disbenefit me with regards to my exams. Keeping that in mind, I think that ±1 year would be an adequate time frame.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Offline Superchr21

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Re: Subject fit chemistry
« Reply #8 on: February 17, 2020, 07:42:25 AM »
So: 1 to 2 years after A-level, access to lab and tutor, some synthesis experience, 1 year duration. That looks good.

I have no idea relating with biology, but some relating with thermochemistry, and many for rocket fuels and similar molecules. Most can make a small research paper. Opinions by chemists welcome!

Possibly too short project: take pure n-alkanes, for instance butane to decane. Freeze them with liquid nitrogen, measure accurately the density at 77K. Check if any odd-even effect exists on the solid density at identical temperature. This is debated and could shed light on what determines melting points.

Short too: measure the effect of geminal amines N-C-N on the enthalpy of formation, as compared with homologue amines C-C-N and alkanes C-C-C. Buy adamantane and hexamethyl tetramine "hexamine", burn them in a calorimetric bomb, measure accurately, deduce the effect. Repeat with bought CN(C)CN(C)C, CN(C)CC(C)C and CC(C)CC(C)C. Existing data seems inconsistent, and I've seen nothing about the effect of geminal amines, but didn't check the best sources neither. Interesting small contribution.

Alkanes with wide liquid range would have many uses, but I (and probably the whole Mankind) have no accurate idea to predict melting points nor select a candidate on the paper. Even measured melting points are far too scarce to build a theory. So I suggest to take a very wide pool of alkanes C10 to C20+ in good amount, and alternate several distillations and freezes to keep only the bunch of compounds that stay liquid. Separating and analysing them seems uneasy to me, but then you could provide at once hundreds of interesting alkanes, directly for use after separation or synthesis, or as input data for a theory about melting points and wide liquid ranges. The initial pool of alkanes could be purified or saturated Diesel oil, or you could combine at once 100 variants of reactant A with 100 variants of reactant B.

Electrochemistry: try to add Mo to electroformed Ni or NiCo, observe the properties, mechanical and others. Ni is easily electrodeposited, Mo has nearly the same redox potential as Ni and Co, which supposedly helps.

Check how nicely UV Leds can replace Hg lamps in photochemical reactions. I fear it isn't very new any more.

Find caparrapi oil, or if not, buy farnesol. Transform them into farnesane, check how easy the dehydrations and saturations are. Rocket fuel for Moon and Mars, more uses on Earth.

Synthesize simple low-freezing amines as rocket fuels for Moon and Mars. Check how easy it is, measure simple properties. Example:
CCN(C)CCCN(C)CCCN(C)CC

Synthesize strained amines as rocket fuels that outperform so-called "kerosene". Check how easy it is, measure simple properties. Example:
C1CCN1C2(CC2)N3CCC3 from bought azetidine and made dihalocyclopropane

The interesting properties for rocket fuels are: stability, flash point, melting point, viscosity, heat of formation, odour and few more.

Some quite strained alkanes would be efficient too, but their are harder to synthesize, to my untrained eyes. Many alkenes would outperform them but demand a redesign of rocket engines. New hydrazines seem too dangerous for this project.

Tell me what projects look good for you, or if these ones are too easy or not enough commercial. I've already detailed them much more on Chemicalforums and would give the links.

My sincerest apologies for my late response.

I am very gratefull for your response! These are marvelous topics! :D I partically liked the alkanes with wide liquid range. The only thing a little unclear to me was the so called odd-even effect you talked about. This perhaps could be due to the language barrier. Furthermore, would you be able to link them as said at the end of your post so I can read more about them. Thank you in advance!

Offline Enthalpy

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Re: Subject fit chemistry
« Reply #9 on: February 17, 2020, 02:27:31 PM »
Odd-even effect on alkane melting points:

Here's the mainstream belief
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkane#Melting_points
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/%28SICI%291521-3773%2819990401%2938%3A7%3C988%3A%3AAID-ANIE988%3E3.0.CO%3B2-0

I see no simple reason why odd or even alkanes should pack better. Remember, they pack in the best orientation. Odd and even alkanes have as many best orientations versus the other molecules, and pairs of molecules can orient their ends the same way whether odd or even.

I tried to compare the densities of the solid C18 to C30 and saw no even-odd effect, there:
https://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=75605.msg274834#msg274834 and following messages
Problem: the effect shrinks for these long alkanes, and data comes from varied sources. But I saw only 1 or 0.1 cm3/mol noise over 350cm3/mol and no even-odd oscillation.

Problem is: if some other reason creates the odd-even effect in the melting points, and the solid density is measured at the melting points, then we will see an effect on the density because of thermal expansion, as a consequence of the odd-even effect on the melting points, not as a cause. Putting figures on that could be a part of the project. I didn't do it.

So my suggestion is to re-measure the densities of smaller alkanes, where the effect is stronger. All at the same temperature, like in boiling nitrogen. All alkanes by the same team, using the same apparatus and the same methods.

Or maybe measure the shrinkage of these alkanes as they freeze:
https://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=75605.msg278590#msg278590
This data seems more pertinent, but it is still sensitive to the thermal expansion. Maybe the thermal expansion should be computed away.

Or re-measure the heats of fusion. Maybe the heat capacities can be computed away.

Doubts:
- This project looks small for a team in one year.
- Usual explanations seem weak. But how much do the experts know?
- How much experimental evidence is already available? Melting points yes, but density at identical temperature?
- This is pure research. Zero use nor economical interest.

If packing density isn't the explanation, the effect will need more refined models.

I'll detail later the other topics.

Offline Enthalpy

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Re: Subject fit chemistry
« Reply #10 on: February 18, 2020, 11:38:57 AM »
Alkanes with wide liquid range:

Initially, I wanted a rocket fuel not easily flammable, hence boiling at +180°C and more, that wouldn't freeze on Mars, at possibly -100°C. Something like farnesane or phytane
CC(C)CCCC(C)CCCC(C)CC or CC(C)CCCC(C)CCCC(C)CCCC(C)CC
and then I realised that many commercial uses have the same needs: transformer oil, lubricants, vacuum oil and grease, cooling liquid, hydraulic fluid including for aeroplanes, corrosion protection, oil for music instruments, fridge ice
http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg246917#msg246917 and next messages
and just knowing a set of good compounds and having more measured melting points would be very nice. Presently, Mankind seems to have less than 50 cold melting points for branched alkanes, that's ludicrous to build a theory or make predictions.

The synthesis of these two compounds looks uneasy, maybe by oligomerisation of isoprene or myrcene
http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg297847#msg297847
One young company, Amyris, goes the biology route
http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg203568#msg203568
Silanes may fit many uses but not fuels
http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg327456#msg327456
I believe these routes are inaccessible to pre-university students. Some alternatives follow here.

Check what Nature has already done. From much light or heavy Diesel oil, extract the hydrocarbons, saturate all bonds or eliminate unsaturated compounds, to have only alkanes. Freeze and distil successively to keep the compounds with exceptional liquid range. Separate every compound as you can, identify it, measure the melting and boiling points, and as you're there, the density, viscosity and so on. If the yield is decent, sell the interesting compounds extracted from oil. If not, maybe someone will synthesize them. Search for some general rules about the melting point, but that's non-trivial, and more examples are needed to eliminate wrong theories; that will help design better molecules.

Synthesize many alkanes at once, then separate the good ones as previously. This may need Grignard reagents which are dangerous, so ask chemists here and at the University. By reacting A1...A100 with B1...B100, you get about 10 000 AB compounds from which some can be interesting.

Synthesize the amine homologues, tertiary, saturated and branched.
CN(C)CCCN(C)CCCN(C)CC
Much easier than alkanes, little more efficient as rocket fuels, less good in other uses, hence more difficult to sell.
http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg254340#msg254340
I suppose these are well within your reach, without big surprises
http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg272080#msg272080
you can even buy the propylene amines and methylate them. And I have nothing against ethylene amines, just propylene should resist cold better. Other amines could be good, say bytulhexyloctylamine, or sisters of propylamines with longer branches. Simple nice syntheses, the useful part is (a) how easy production is (b) what the physical properties are: melting point, flash point, viscosity, density... and odour is interesting too.

As a variant, synthesize a bunch of alkyl-alkyl'-alkyl"-amines from a mixture or alkenes, haloalkanes or alcohols, then separate and identify the fuels with the best liquid range, search for azeotropes, check how much separation is useful in mass production. This could be cheap enough for cars and make use of C3 and C4 hydrocarbons that are presently torched at the gas and oil wells.
CCCCCCN(CCCC)CCCCCCCC
The same operation with silanes would open different markets, but seems too dangerous for pre-University students.

Synthesize farnesane from caparrapi oil which is available from a tree in South America, just like we have rubber from hevea. Or start from farnesol, equivalent but less demonstrative. That synthesis of farnesane seems much easier: separate, saturate, dehydrate, saturate again, purify.
From http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg338107#msg338107
to https://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg349796#msg349796
It involves hydrogen (I believe alternatives exist) and maybe special apparatus. The project would check if farnesane is obtained, how easy the process is, what unexpected problems arise. If farnesane gets as cheap as natural rubber, it won't replace kerosene for airliners, but it can feed rockets very easily, maybe cool computers, and so on. I expect many commercial uses. That process would compete against Amyris' biological route.

Here you can make chemical syntheses. Uncertainties are small. Most results can be published. I'm not a chemist, so I hope you'll get advice here and at your University.

Offline Superchr21

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Re: Subject fit chemistry
« Reply #11 on: February 18, 2020, 05:27:15 PM »
Alkanes with wide liquid range:

Initially, I wanted a rocket fuel not easily flammable, hence boiling at +180°C and more, that wouldn't freeze on Mars, at possibly -100°C. Something like farnesane or phytane
CC(C)CCCC(C)CCCC(C)CC or CC(C)CCCC(C)CCCC(C)CCCC(C)CC
and then I realised that many commercial uses have the same needs: transformer oil, lubricants, vacuum oil and grease, cooling liquid, hydraulic fluid including for aeroplanes, corrosion protection, oil for music instruments, fridge ice
http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg246917#msg246917 and next messages
and just knowing a set of good compounds and having more measured melting points would be very nice. Presently, Mankind seems to have less than 50 cold melting points for branched alkanes, that's ludicrous to build a theory or make predictions.

The synthesis of these two compounds looks uneasy, maybe by oligomerisation of isoprene or myrcene
http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg297847#msg297847
One young company, Amyris, goes the biology route
http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg203568#msg203568
Silanes may fit many uses but not fuels
http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg327456#msg327456
I believe these routes are inaccessible to pre-university students. Some alternatives follow here.

Check what Nature has already done. From much light or heavy Diesel oil, extract the hydrocarbons, saturate all bonds or eliminate unsaturated compounds, to have only alkanes. Freeze and distil successively to keep the compounds with exceptional liquid range. Separate every compound as you can, identify it, measure the melting and boiling points, and as you're there, the density, viscosity and so on. If the yield is decent, sell the interesting compounds extracted from oil. If not, maybe someone will synthesize them. Search for some general rules about the melting point, but that's non-trivial, and more examples are needed to eliminate wrong theories; that will help design better molecules.

Synthesize many alkanes at once, then separate the good ones as previously. This may need Grignard reagents which are dangerous, so ask chemists here and at the University. By reacting A1...A100 with B1...B100, you get about 10 000 AB compounds from which some can be interesting.

Synthesize the amine homologues, tertiary, saturated and branched.
CN(C)CCCN(C)CCCN(C)CC
Much easier than alkanes, little more efficient as rocket fuels, less good in other uses, hence more difficult to sell.
http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg254340#msg254340
I suppose these are well within your reach, without big surprises
http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg272080#msg272080
you can even buy the propylene amines and methylate them. And I have nothing against ethylene amines, just propylene should resist cold better. Other amines could be good, say bytulhexyloctylamine, or sisters of propylamines with longer branches. Simple nice syntheses, the useful part is (a) how easy production is (b) what the physical properties are: melting point, flash point, viscosity, density... and odour is interesting too.

As a variant, synthesize a bunch of alkyl-alkyl'-alkyl"-amines from a mixture or alkenes, haloalkanes or alcohols, then separate and identify the fuels with the best liquid range, search for azeotropes, check how much separation is useful in mass production. This could be cheap enough for cars and make use of C3 and C4 hydrocarbons that are presently torched at the gas and oil wells.
CCCCCCN(CCCC)CCCCCCCC
The same operation with silanes would open different markets, but seems too dangerous for pre-University students.

Synthesize farnesane from caparrapi oil which is available from a tree in South America, just like we have rubber from hevea. Or start from farnesol, equivalent but less demonstrative. That synthesis of farnesane seems much easier: separate, saturate, dehydrate, saturate again, purify.
From http://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg338107#msg338107
to https://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg349796#msg349796
It involves hydrogen (I believe alternatives exist) and maybe special apparatus. The project would check if farnesane is obtained, how easy the process is, what unexpected problems arise. If farnesane gets as cheap as natural rubber, it won't replace kerosene for airliners, but it can feed rockets very easily, maybe cool computers, and so on. I expect many commercial uses. That process would compete against Amyris' biological route.

Here you can make chemical syntheses. Uncertainties are small. Most results can be published. I'm not a chemist, so I hope you'll get advice here and at your University.

Yet again, thank you for your answer! I am very interested in this subject, however my tutor did ask me for a synthesis so he could check if it would be possible for us. Though, I am having a little bit of trouble understanding the synthesis of making farnesane. Could you perhaps elaborate on that? Or the possible steps one could take in order to create farnesane.

Offline Enthalpy

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Re: Subject fit chemistry
« Reply #12 on: February 19, 2020, 05:22:02 PM »
I suppose that the route to farnesane accessible to you is from caparrapi oil. From isoprene, it was top-level research some decades ago.

Caparrapi oil is banal on the village market of Caparrapi, Colombia. Either you go there and bring a bottle back (nice excuse to visit Colombia), or you find it elsewhere, or let someone (University nearby? Any inhabitant?) send you a bottle. Or you replace it with farnesol sold on Alibaba, but I feel it less demonstrative.

You distil a few things away, to keep only the three main alcohols.

The rest is described there
https://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg349723#msg349723
the scheme of the process is appended again here under.

The hydrogenation and dehydration are described there
https://www.chem.wisc.edu/areas/reich/chem547/2-redox%7B04%7D.htm
https://as.vanderbilt.edu/chemistry/Rizzo/chem220a/Chapter_6.pdf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogenation
http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/courses/351/Carey5th/Ch05/ch5-2.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dehydration_reaction
https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Organic_Chemistry/Supplemental_Modules_(Organic_Chemistry)/Alkenes/Synthesis_of_Alkenes/Alkenes_from_Dehydration_of_Alcohols
and I can't tell better, but these are standard and banal chemical reactions.

Offline Enthalpy

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Re: Subject fit chemistry
« Reply #13 on: March 02, 2020, 05:59:52 PM »
I've put thoughts about the uses and production of trialkylamines there
https://www.chemicalforums.com/index.php?topic=56069.msg362592#msg362592
Again, I'm no expert, but such a project looks simple to me: one-pot hydroamination
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroamination
http://organicreactions.org/index.php?title=Hydroamination_reactions_of_alkenes
obtain something, check the properties.

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