My previous comment is true.
Admittedly, the following statement can be found in chemistry textbooks for non-university schools: "The reaction of sulfuric acid with calcium carbonate proceeds only for a few moments because the salt formed, calcium sulfate, is only slightly soluble and deposits on the carbonate, preventing this compound from reacting with the acid ”, which is not real.
The reactions of barium, lead and calcium carbonates are slow, but they do.
On the other hand, the observer draws the wrong conclusions on the basis that the sediment does not disappear and no gas bubbles are visible. However, if the vessel becomes plugged and will be agitated for some time, a slight overpressure will be noticed when the vessel is unplugged. It can chemically be confirmed that it is carbon dioxide. The resulting insoluble sulfates are in no way able to form a tight layer preventing acid from allowing the carbonate surface.
The answer to the question in Cambridge IGCSE is geared to the short observation time, not the actual course of the reaction.