How can we compare the reactivity of aldehydes/ketones with the reactivity of acyl chloride/esters? The former undergoes nucleophilic addition upon reacting with a Grignard reagent, whereas the latter undergoes nucleophilic substitution. But let us say I have a mixture of an aldehyde and some ester in equivalent amounts. How would we predict the major product? Repeat the same type of thinking for other pairs of of carbonyls.
Stuff like this can be tricky to give full answer, but a rough relative order for electrophilicity is:
acid chloride > anhydride > aldehyde > ketone > ester ~carboxylic acid > amide > carboxylate
Reactivity in some cases might depend on the type of nucleophile, and other factors. For example Carboxylic acids have an issue where they tend to get deprotonated under basic conditions, greatly reducing their electrophilicity. And there are myriad other exceptions depending on the precise conditions.
This trend is rationalized based on how electron donating or withdrawing the groups are that are bonded to the carbonyl carbon. E.g. chlorine is very electron withdrawing, alkyl is moderately electron donating, and a nitrogen lone pair or negative oxygen are both very strongly electron donating. A second issue is steric hindrance: more sterically hindered groups make the carbonyl less electrophilic also.
For aldehyde vs ester specifically, I think an aldehyde would always be more reactive than an ester during the addition of any kind of nucleophile. The only tricky thing there is that some addition products with aldehydes might form very reversibly, e.g. hydrate or hemi-acetal formation would be very easily reversible.