For #1, how would I use the half reactions to explain it.

What exactly does it mean when something is oxidized / reduced, other than the loss/gain of electrons?

In this context, that is all it really means.

Are you familiar with reduction potentials (sometimes called electrode potentials)?

Using the potentials of the half reactions, you can determine the potential of the (whole) reaction, and whether it will happen spontaneously or not.

I tried all the other questions, honestly, but I doubt I did it right. Just now I found some of my mistakes, but I doubt I'd get the right answer anyways.

By posting your own attempts, we can guide you to the answer by looking at how you are approaching the problem. Nobody here is likely to just give you the answer, we aren't meant to.

i.e for 3a the solubility

So since a precipitate will form, then a reaciton will occur. Even without looking at the solubility table, why wouldn't a reaction occur. Everything would just cancel out in the net ionic equation, is that why? And in the net ionic equation we would determine if it is redox or not, correct?

Exactly right, if all the possible salts were soluble then there would be no net ionic equation, because as you rightly said, the terms would cancel if all the possible salts were soluble. You can see whether it will be redox or not by looking at your equation.

So,

What is the precipitate? Is it redox? What are the relavent chemical equations?

In your second consecutive post,

The half reactions you have written are correct like that. For the net ionic, you will have to balance it fully by scaling the half reactions' coefficients.