Flashcards in Statistical reasoning Deck (25)

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1

##
In regard to B, if A had not occurred, B would not have occurred

Have to be a brother to be an uncle. What kind of condition is this?

### Necessary condition

2

## In regard to B, A is enough to guarantee that B occurs. What type of condition is this?

### Sufficient condition

3

## Statistical propositions

### Propositions that present quantitative evidence about a category of things

4

## total

### the entire number of items in a class S or the sum of their values on a variable P

5

## Ratio

### the total expressed as a unit of another class (a total expressed in relative terms)

6

## Frequency

### the number or proportion of Ss that have some particular value on a variable P

7

## Distribution

### the number or proportion of Ss that have each of the values (P, Q, R) on some variable

8

## mean

### the sum of the values that the Ss have on a quantitative variable P, divided by the number of Ss

9

## Median

### The middle value of the Ss on a quantitative variable P

10

## Absolute frequency

### Tell actual number of Ss that are Ps

11

## Relative frequency

### Tell us proportion of Ss that are Ps

12

## Proxy variable

### variable that affects result but is not measured/directly relevant in data

13

## Internal validity

### certainty around cause and effect of members in study

14

## External validity

### can the generalisation hold for a wider group

15

## Statistical generalisation

### aiming for a representation of a larger sample (want quantitative diversity and use random sampling)

16

## Can be 95% sure that our claim i will fall within this probability (e.g. 5% of 46 = likely to be within 41 and 51)

### Margin of error

17

## How you choose the sample has effect on how random it is (e.g. testing test scores from first 10 to arrive at class)

### Selection bias

18

## How you word questions has effect on randomness of sample (e.g. do you support war or intervention)

### Testing biases

19

## When random sampling consider:

###
Margin of error

Testing biases

Selection biases

20

## Priming

### expose to a stimulus influences a response to a subsequent stimulus without conscious guidance/intention

21

## confounding variable

### undesirably affects outcome as third unknown variable

22

## Experimental vs observational

### Can't control all variables so important to know difference

23

## bigger the effect

### more like there is a causation, rather than a correlation

24

## Statistical correlations

### Specific type of relationship between two variables e.g. average income and education years

25