I hate to bring up basics when I believe everyone reading this knows the difference between the Unit Operations of Absorption and Adsorption, but I'll do it anyway because I think this thread will die from confusion if I don't.
Adsorbents such as "activated carbon, zeolite, prep chromatography bed (type), sodium metal", and others have nothing whatsoever to do with Absorption. Solid adsorbents do not absorb. Using either term in place of the other will lead to mass confusion. The two Unit Operations are very, very different and should be understood by all reading this thread.
The conditions of temperature and pressure in an absorption column usually are set by the process in question. Normally, the higher the pressure - the better the absorption factor; the lower the temperature, the better the absorption factor. But those are only generalities. Sometimes, such as in the case of CO2 absorption with an MEA solution can cause problems if the CO2 originates in a condensable hydrocarbon stream. Some of the hydrocarbons can condense with a lower temperature in the absorption column and cause a serious MEA solution contamination and cause foaming and other problems in the absorber and in the stripper. So it all depends on the Process and also on the chemistry in question.
Basically, your question is too general or vague and you need to be specific if you have a case in mind. If you don't have a specific case in point, then you can only speculate.