Electrostatics is correct, but way too broad.
But the problem is stated incorrectly. "Raw" ebonite wouldn't attract pepper, it would have to be rubbed with a wool (or some other high-friction) cloth first.
For instance, most plastic spoons would work just as well if rubbed correctly.
So, I think it's all but obvious now.
Well, except for maybe why pepper gets an induced charge seperation easier then salt. As in pepper requires a weaker external electric field to get the charge sep. then salt.
But I think you chemists should jump on that one in a hurry.