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Topic: Hydrocarbons  (Read 5879 times)

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Offline Nguyen-

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Hydrocarbons
« on: January 05, 2008, 11:44:59 PM »
Alcohol is a subsituted hydrocarbon correct?

I would like the following information if I could get it please.

1. The definition of function group
2. the identity of the functional group for the classes of the hydrocarbon
3. Chemical and physical properties of the group
4. why the hydrocarbon is important
5. economic and/or biological importance
6. typical reactions of the group
7. 3 compounds in the class and their lewis dot structure

Thanks in advance.. Sorta need this ASAP

Offline Mitch

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Re: Hydrocarbons
« Reply #1 on: January 05, 2008, 11:54:09 PM »
An important application of hydrocarbons is as a major constituent in gasoline. For more info see here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gasoline

But, you'll need to show that you've tried to solve those questions in order to solicit any more help from forum staff or regulars.
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Offline Nguyen-

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Re: Hydrocarbons
« Reply #2 on: January 05, 2008, 11:57:34 PM »
I understand but my problem is I have been trying to get a stright answer for what a subsituted hydrocarbon is and what an example of one would be, but I cant find a straight answer.

Offline Alpha-Omega

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Re: Hydrocarbons
« Reply #3 on: January 06, 2008, 12:06:58 AM »
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. With relation to chemical terminology, aromatic hydrocarbons or arenes, alkanes, alkenes and alkyne-based compounds composed entirely of carbon or hydrogen are referred to as "Pure" hydrocarbons, whereas other hydrocarbons with bonded compounds or impurities of sulphur or nitrogen, are referred to as "impure", and remain somewhat erroneously referred to as hydrocarbons.

Hydrocarbons are referred to as consisting of a "backbone" or "skeleton" composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen and other bonded compounds, and lack a functional group that generally facilitates combustion without adverse effects. The majority of hydrocarbons found naturally occur in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded can catenate to form seemingly limitless chains.

reference:  Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrocarbon

In organic chemistry, functional groups (or moieties) are specific groups of atoms within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of.

Combining the names of functional groups with the names of the parent alkanes generates a powerful systematic nomenclature for naming organic compounds.

The non-hydrogen atoms of functional groups are always associated with each other and with the rest of the molecule by covalent bonds. When the group of atoms is associated with the rest of the molecule primarily by ionic forces, the group is referred to more properly as a polyatomic ion or complex ion. And all of these are called radicals, by a meaning of the term radical that predates the free radical.

The first carbon atom after the carbon that attaches to the functional group is called the alpha carbon.

Functional groups are attached to the carbon backbone of organic molecules. They determine the characteristics and chemical reactivity of molecules. Functional groups are far less stable than the carbon backbone and are likely to participate in chemical reactions.


Reference:  Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_group

Click on the additional links in Wikipedia and you will find all of this.


Offline Alpha-Omega

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Re: Hydrocarbons
« Reply #4 on: January 06, 2008, 02:00:11 AM »
YES-alcohols, esters, ethers, amines, all of these are all functional groups.

Here is a link to the functional groups each is bullted as noted: 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Functional_groups

Offline Nguyen-

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Re: Hydrocarbons
« Reply #5 on: January 06, 2008, 04:34:53 PM »
Just a little push will get me on my way.

So for organic acids, which I have come to conclude must be subsituted hydrocarbons, what would the functional group be?  carboxyl or carboxylic acids?

Offline Kryolith

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Re: Hydrocarbons
« Reply #6 on: January 06, 2008, 04:41:30 PM »
A carboxylic acid is a molecule, with a carboxyl group. Amino acids for example have amino groups and carboxyl groups.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carboxyl

Offline Alpha-Omega

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Re: Hydrocarbons
« Reply #7 on: January 06, 2008, 05:52:17 PM »
OK I think I know why you are still having problems...

Here...the basic Organic Functional Groups you should know and commit to memory are:  Alcohol, Aldehyde, Amide, Amine, Carboxylic Acid, Ester, Ether, and Ketone..

Please look at these very basic structures:

http://chemistry.about.com/library/weekly/aa062703a.htm

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