Hi Artificial Student,
Excellent work, there is a good chance that you may need to perform some work from a laboratory perspective to get the details you are looking for. I will answer and provide guidance the best I can with your questions...here goes:
1) COD is measured first, because the test results are available in 4-hours. BOD test results are available in 5 days.
2) As a guesstimate (an estimated guess
) the COD is 1/2 of the BOD. Microbes are notoriously horrible at math.
3) Each microbe has a different methane production. Determine the microbe that you are using and look up reports from there.
4) You can't. Each sludge is performed on a 'batch' basis. Some batches will produce a large amount of methane, and some will produce a small amount of methane. This production rate also greatly depends on water concentration, feedstock and temperature.
5) Usually COD, BOD, TKN, TON and TP are required for the discharge of effluent. There is probably no need to perform this on the influent.
6) TKN is the sum of organic and inorganic nitrogen. TKN is determined int the same manner as TON except that the ammonia is not driven off before the digestion step.
7)The respiration rate is performed with a 'bench test'. Because each microbe has a different reaction rate and production rate, this can only be performed by testing.
8 ) The loading rate greatly depends on the organics that you are adding to 'load' with. If the organics are readily decomposible by the local microbes, then there will be a low BOD. If the organics are difficult to decompose, then the BOD will be signifacently higher for the same mass of feedstock.
I wish you well,