It is said that indium and tin oxide (90% and 10%) is used as the thin conductive layer in LCD displays (laptops, cellphones, perhaps LCD calculators as well).
I have read that tin oxide is added to reduce the usage of indium since it is a rare and expensive substance.
I also read that indium oxide is the only known transparent conductor that is good enough for that application. No replacements have been found yet.
What makes it conductive? Is it specially prepared but vapor deposition or if I just take some indium and heat it, the oxide coating would conduct?