(b) PCl3 + Cl- -> PCl4-
Are you sure this reaction is possible.
PCl5 in crystal form has a structure PCl4+PCl6-
I think it may be, it looks like some sort of gas phase reaction. It looks like a "chemically sound" reaction; the chloride ion would come in opposite the lone pair on phosphorus (back-side attack), and the chlorines already bonded would go from being pyramidal to being planar (can't invert if the lone pair is there). The result would be a distorted tetrahedral PCl4-
please explain me the basic concept of hybridisation
Hybridization is the mixture of orbitals on the same atomic center to produce new orbitals that "point" in the correct angles for bonding. It was derived by Linus Pauling and was used to explain bond angles for molecules like methane (CH4
) determined spectroscopically. For methane, the bond angles are all about 109.5 degrees, p orbitals are all perpendicular to one another. If we mix all of the 2p orbtials with the 2s orbital (takes a lot of math, you have to take linear combinations of wavefunctions) you get 4 sp3
hybrid orbitals that point 109.5 degrees from one another, which matches the experimental data. Hybridization is part of valence bond theory, which says that orbitals on different atoms must overlap to form a chemical bond.
Hope this helps