Geodome is partly correct. I am assuming we all know that an atom's orbital is not a circle, but a grey are of which it is probable of being as it jumps around. The diference between the 2s and 2p orbitals is not wholly distance, but shape. The shape of the p orbital is a dumbell shape while the shape of the s orbital is that of a sphere. The reason that the p orbital is considered mostly farther away is that parts of the dumbell go farther away than the sphere. The hardest part after learning all the quantum theory and spaces, orbitals electrons is probably that all these shells are overlapping, all the 2 sub-orbitals are stacked pretty much ontop one another(of course not all in one exact spot, but you can imagine what I mean, while the other orbitals s,p,d,and f are slightly farther away they are very close to being in the same general area, which is why they are SUB-orbitals).
Its very hard to imagine, and unless you are specifically asked whether or not they overlap and are together like this it is probably best to think of them as you are, seperate and apart. And what I can picture of an electron is that it absorbs the energy, gets excited, and throws it back up because it cannot remain at that state, so it spits it back up(nice picture,lol) as a photon of light.
Thinking thats the general question you asked, but the atom composition and identity does not change(as that to change an element to another you must change the amount of protons, not e- ), the size also remains the same as that the electrons activity is so quick that it seems to just give off the photon(As we can tell) and by itself it doesn't change the atom(however the decompisition of hydrogen peroxide comes to mind, that if exposed to light it will decompose, which is why it is in the bottle). I hope I answered your question, I still have a lot to learn but thats somewhat answering your question.