Really specialized question but I thought I would give it a shot to see if anyone had any insights. I'm working with various types of nanoparticles that are stabilized by oleic acid ligands after synthesis, and are required to control nanoparticle growth and formation. However after nanoparticle formation, I want to remove the ligands from the NP surfaces. I've tried various ligand exchange techniques, but all result in agglomeration/aggregation of the particles post-exchange and result in a non-colloidal suspension. Any thoughts/advice on ligand exchanges or different approaches to try would be greatly appreciated. Thanks!