When someone says to you what is table salt, you answer sodium chloride. Like it or not you memorized that piece of information. No where can you divine the answer by logical thinking. Of course and fortunately that knowledge is located in some reference that you can look up. Now, if you are taking a test and have a book that converts all common names to chemical names you can look up the answer. But, you are handicapped by taking an inordinate of time looking up every common name. So, if you memorize the most likely, you are more competitive. The trick is selecting which should be remembered.
When multiplying 10 times 10 we might use logic to derive the answer. But that still relies on memorization of the multiplication tables from 0 to 9. We could add 10 to 10 to 10 to 10 to 10 to 10 to 10 to 10 to 10 to 10 and avoid the memorization of the multiplication tables. I would personally run out of fingers and toes before I got the answer using addition. Again the trick is selecting what one should memorize. At one time, I took the time to memorize the squares of 1 through 25 so as to speed up calculations I needed to do. < tongue in cheek mode on> Now, they allow the riff raff to use calculators. What is this world coming to. < tongue in cheek mode off>
There is a story that Einstein was asked his telephone number and he had to use the phone book to give the answer. When asked why he said he only memorized the important things. I hope he would have memorized 911 for emergencies. But, I would not bet my life on it.
The original poster has a reasonable request. Based on our experience which things do we memorize that made us more efficient and which things do we rely on logic to answer. Not one of you derives all answers solely on logic.