b) follows the same concept as circuits in physics...that doesn't help. explain please.
and c) is simple algebra
well in circuits, which way do electrons flow? from - (cathode) to + (anode) or opposite.
and note the reply to matt for the other
AP Chemistry Squad Member 
The world is like an atom. The not-quite-as-intelligent people are the nucleus all packed together sharing a common...everything. We, we are the electrons. Granted we're not as smart as these engineers and what-not so we're most likely in the first orbital, but we're the electrons of this giant atom. We all have differing intelligences and ideas and we are separated from the nucleus which makes us better because no one really cares about how a nucleus acts. It's the electrons that make chemistry, except for nuclear chem, of course, which I am a big fan of.
-Your's truly, 2006;
written to describe the HS chem student apart from the average being