I learned the very basics behind molecular spectroscopy during my first general chem class when we did our introduction to quantum (e.g. vibrational states, rotational states, nuclear spin flips etc). I did some very basic structural determinations (i.e. given an IR is this compound an alcohol, acid, ketone, ester, etc.) in a late first-year/early second-year introductory ochem lab. But, I learned most of (ochem) structure determination during my second quarter of organic chemistry. Biological structure determination is for graduate classes though.