As was said, your home lab is required to follow local laws for release of reagent fumes. You can look those up, and maybe ask local environmental agencies. And you can work on that, at your pace -- research first, understand what compliance will mean/require, and make a decision.
You know what's being released, do you know what the filters can absorb? What are they made of and what do they claim to absorb, and what chemistry is involved?
Offhand -- phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid aren't volatile. However, working with can give off fumes -- mists of acids released from mixing, that sort of thing. Controlling what you're doing will go a long way to longevity. Carbon filters will absorb formaldehyde, so will dedicated organic vapor filters. They become saturated at some point, then have to be discarded responsibly, and replaced. That's a double cost. Both thick PVC piping, or stainless ducting stand up to the vapors you listed, until they don't, then they have to be replaced. It depends on your use.
There are meters that determine airflow. Asa rule of thumb, if a piece of tissue paper is being drawn in when the sash is at working level, the fan is ding its job, and no impeded by a clogged filter or leaky ductwork. But compliance with workplace regulations requires measurement of airflow with a calibrated gauge.