Read carefully chapter in your textbook concerning: octet rule, a formal charge and Lewis structure (Lewis dot diagram). Then all will be clear.
Wikipedia can be a good starting point. Almost every internet site in general chemistry also contains the information you need. This is an elementary problem for every student of chemistry and the student must get to know him thoroughly (and understand it!).
O2 N - aromatic ring - OH
- this compound is called: nitrophenol
1) I was told one of the oxygen has a double bond, but why? How would I find that out?
- in all compounds, the oxygen atom with zero formal charge is bivalent.
2) Also, I was told the charge of Nitrogen is +(+1).
- this should be called the formal charge.
It has 4 bonds around it
4 - this is the highest possible number of bonds for the elements of the second period. See the octet rule.